When we look at a colony of bees, we tend to think of the hive as a family. It is, in fact, more or less very much like a typical single-parent family, with a mother – the queen bee – and her sons and daughters. What is unusual about a hive of honeybees, however, is that not all the bees in the hive share the same father. Some bees don’t even have fathers! This leads to some unusual relationships between the bees themselves.
The bees that do not have fathers are the drone bees. They originate from unfertilized eggs, and have only one set of chromosomes, the queen’s. Drones in a hive are true genetic brothers, each carrying only the queen’s genetics. Drone bees, however, are not entirely related to their sisters – the worker bees – who in fact do have fathers.
The worker bees originated from fertilized eggs that carry the genetics of both the queen mother and various drone fathers. This makes many of the worker bees half-sisters to each other. Because their mother, the queen, mated with upwards of 15 drones, many of the worker bees within a colony have different fathers. This explains why sometimes worker bees within a hive can look differently from each other. Many of the worker bees are not sisters, but are actually half-sisters.
Missing from every beehive is any evidence of the fathers of the worker bees. One will never find the father of a bee actually in the same hive as the daughters. You might say that the fathers are “deadbeat dads,” but this would not be completely true. The fathers are actually “hero dads.” All drones die during mating, so that no honeybee ever gets to know her father and no drone honey bee father ever gets to know his daughters, as they gave up their lives in the very act of mating and furthering the welfare of not only the colony, but the entire species!