A bee colony has an overall intelligence that is obvious to a beekeeper that pays close attention. This intelligence is more than just the sum of the individual bees; it is intrinsic to the colony as a whole. Although the roles of individual bees within a hive are different, the hive itself operates as a single unit, which appears to have a single mind. There is no one bee or group of bees that is “in charge.” Even the queen, who is the most important individual bee within the hive, is not the leader, but rather just a unique part of the whole. The intelligence of the hive is not something that can be defined by breaking down the whole into pieces, but is rather a collective intelligence that exists within the group, as opposed to the sum of the individuals.
This intelligence is apparent during a number of events that the hive conducts with no apparent leadership or organization that we humans understand. For example, in the spring, the colony will build drone comb and the queen will begin laying drones seemingly all at once, without any understood level of coordination or communication. Another example is when young bees take their training flights. This is always a group exercise that begins and ends with no apparent leadership or trigger to both the start or the finish.
The most obvious example of collective intelligence is during swarming. Anyone who has watched a swarm travel cannot help to wonder how the bees manage to fly as a group and make instantaneous collective decisions as to flight plans, direction, resting place, etc., without any apparent leaders or individual decision makers. The bees themselves appear to be of “one mind”, and possess a group intelligence that is not easily understood by a species that is dominated by individual behavior such as ours.